The electronic warfare (EW ) is a business technology and electronics in order to determine, exploit, reduce or prevent hostile use of all energy spectra, by the adversary yet conserve the use of said spectrum for its own benefit.
The military use of electronic equipment reaches all levels and methods of combat. The communications equipment allows real-time control of all the steps of the combat forces and provides the chief of them with the necessary data to assess the situation. Radar networks ( radio acronyms for radio detection and ranging , radio detection and telemetry) facilitate a prior warning of an enemy air attack, and electronic firing direction systems help air defense. These electronic networks can guide interception planes against the attacking force. These same planes have a sophisticated set of equipment for the detection of targets, navigation and guidance of weapons to the target. However, as all of these systems rely heavily on the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of intelligence and operability, opposing forces can use other electromagnetic devices to reduce their optimal use and even use our system.
Since the invention of radar during World War II, electronic warfare has not ceased to progress by leaps and bounds until nowadays it becomes the decisive factor of victory. In the same way that without conquering air superiority it is unthinkable to obtain victory, without electronic superiority it is unthinkable to achieve this. The survivability of own forces in a hostile environment and the accuracy and effectiveness of weapons depend on the ability to control the electromagnetic spectrum. On the other hand, the first hostile action in a confrontation always goes through the disturbance and the attack on the adversary’s detection and communications systems. EW is not an independent factor but must be considered a very important factor in the assessment of survival and vulnerability.
Given the complexity of military operations, the EW is divided into three elementary parts:
Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM): Area of the EW that includes the actions taken to search, intercept, identify or locate sources of irradiated electromagnetic energy in order to obtain an immediate recognition of the threat. Thus, the ESMs provide a source of information required for immediate action that includes electronic countermeasures, electronic countermeasures, evasion actions, target location and other tactical use of the forces.
Electronic countermeasures (ECM): Area of the EW that includes the actions taken to prevent or reduce the enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum. NDEs include:Electronic disturbance: It is the deliberate radiation, reradiation or reflection of electromagnetic energy, in order to reduce the enemy’s use of electronic devices, equipment or systems.
Electronic deception: The deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, absorption or reflection of electromagnetic energy with the intention of disorienting the enemy in the interpretation or use of the information received through its electronic systems. There are two categories of electronic disappointment:
Manipulative electronic deception: The alteration or simulation of friendly electromagnetic radiation, in order to achieve disappointment.
Imitating electromagnetic deception: Introduction of radiation into enemy channels, in order to mimic their own emissions.
Electronic Protection Measures (EPM): Area of the EW that includes the adoption of measures aimed at ensuring the proper use of the electromagnetic spectrum despite the use of the Electronic War by the enemy.
Emission Evasion: Deliberate use of Frequencies that the enemy cannot capture with its ELINT or COMINT means
Finally, a concept that is increasingly important: emission control (CONEM). It is the selective control of emitted electromagnetic or acoustic energy. in order to minimize the detection of it by the enemy sensors, or to improve the performance of the installed sensors.
It is often thought that CONEM is total electronic silence. It might well be that way, but electronic silence is a type of CONEM. As defined, CONEM is selective and manifests according to different degrees.